+ What is the Mental health?

In The Name Of GOD

Definitions of Mental Health in the Web:

attachment 1 پیوست شماره۱

• The successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity.
• How a person thinks, feels, and acts when faced with life's situations. Mental health is how people look at themselves, their lives, and the other people in their lives; evaluate their challenges and problems; and explore choices. This includes handling stress, relating to other people, and making decisions.
• A relatively enduring state of being in which an individual is reasonably satisfying to self, as reflected in his/her zest for living and feeling of self-realization. It also implies a large degree of adjustment to the social environment, as indicated by the satisfaction derived from interpersonal relationships, as well as achievements.
• The capacity of an individual to form harmonious relations with his/her social and physical environment, and to achieve a balanced satisfaction of his/her own drives.
• The psychological condition of the mind.
• Describes an appropriate balance between the individual, their social group, and the larger environment. These three components combine to promote psychological and social harmony, a sense of well being, self-actualization, and environmental mastery.
• the psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment
• Mental health, mental hygiene and mental wellness are all terms used to describe the absence of mental illness. By this definition, mental status has two possibilities: either health or illness. 

Attachment پیوست 2:

What is Mental Health?
 From Leonard Holmes, Ph.D.,
Your Guide to Mental Health Resources.

It has always been easier to define mental illnesses than to define mental health. In the United States the American Psychiatric Association has traditionally been the organization to define mental disorders (beginning as early as 1917 when it was known as The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions of the Insane). More recently many have recognized that mental health is more than the absence of mental illness. Even though many of us don't suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder, it is clear that some of us are mentally healthier than others. The study of the characteristics that make up mental health has been called "positive psychology." Here are some of the ideas that have been put forward as characteristics of mental health:

• The ability to enjoy life - The ability to enjoy life is essential to good mental health.  James Taylor wrote that "The secret of life is enjoying the passing of time.  Any fool can do it.  There is nothing to it."  The practice of mindfulness meditation is one way to cultivate the ability to enjoy the present.  We, of course, need to plan for the future at times; and we also need to learn from the past.  Too often we make ourselves miserable in the present by worrying about the future

• Resilience - The ability to bounce back from adversity has been referred to as "resilience." It has been long known that some people handle stress better than others.

Why are some Viet Nam combat veterans handicapped for life, while others become United States senators? Why do some adults raised in alcoholic families do well, while others have repeated problems in life? The characteristic of "resilience" is shared by those who cope well with stress.

• Balance - Balance in life seems to result in greater mental health. We all need to balance time spent socially with time spent alone, for example. Those who spend all of their time alone may get labeled as "loners", and they may lose many of their social skills. Extreme social isolation may even result in a split with reality. Those who ignore the need for some solitary times also risk such a split. Balancing these two needs seems to be the key – although we all balance these differently. Other areas where balance seems to be important include the balance between work and play, the balance between sleep and wakefulness, the balance between rest and exercise, and even the balance between time spent indoors and time spent outdoors.

• Flexibility - We all know people who hold very rigid opinions. No amount of discussion can change their views. Such people often set themselves up for added stress by the rigid expectations that they hold. Working on making our expectations more flexible can improve our mental health. Emotional flexibility may be just as important as cognitive flexibility.  Mental healthy people experience a range of emotions and allow themselves to express these feelings.  Some people shut off certain feelings, finding them to be unacceptable.  This emotional rigidity may result in other mental health problems.

• Self-actualization - What have we made of the gifts that we have been given?  We all know people who have surpassed their potential and others who seem to have squandered their gifts.  We first need to recognize our gifts, of course, and the process of recognition is part of the path toward self-actualization.  Mentally healthy persons are persons who are in the process of actualizing their potential.

These are just a few of the concepts that are important in attempting to define mental health.  The ability to form healthy relationships with others is also important.  Adult and adolescent mental health also includes the concepts of self-esteem and healthy sexuality. How we deal with loss and death is also an important element of mental health.

Attachment پیوست 3:

Mental Health, state characterized by psychological well-being and self-acceptance. The term “mental health” usually implies the capacity to love and relate to others, and the willingness to behave in a way that brings personal satisfaction without encroaching upon the rights of others—to be well adapted and emotionally well adjusted. In a clinical sense, mental health is the absence of mental illness.
Concern for the mentally ill has waxed and waned through the centuries, but the development of modern-day approaches to the subject dates from the mid-18th century, when reformers such as the French doctor Philippe Pinel and the American doctor Benjamin Rush introduced humane “moral treatment” to replace the often cruel treatment that then prevailed. Despite these reforms, most of the mentally ill continued to live in jails and poorhouses—a situation that continued throughout the 19th century.
Scope of the Problem
According to a common estimate, at any one time 10 per cent of the population has mental health problems serious enough to warrant care; recent evidence suggests that this figure may be closer to 15 per cent. Not all the people who need help receive it, however. One major reason for this is that people still fear the stigma attached to mental illness and hence often fail to report it or to seek help.
Analysis of the figures on mental illness shows that schizophrenia afflicts an estimated 180,000 people in Britain alone—with at least the same number likely to suffer from severe depressive disorders. Organic mental states causing dementia, delirium, memory loss, mild or moderate depression, anxiety, and other types of emotional problems are also very common—one in ten people in Britain suffers from some form of depression. Alcohol abuse is on the increase in many countries, and it is likely that many more abuse drugs. The list of mental health problems can also be extended beyond identifiable psychiatric conditions to include the damage to mental health associated with unrelenting poverty, unemployment, and discrimination on the basis of race, sex, class, age, and mental or physical handicaps.
Care of the mentally ill has changed dramatically in recent decades. Drugs introduced in the mid-1950s, along with other improved treatment methods, enabled many patients who would once have spent years in mental institutions to be treated as outpatients instead. The few remaining mental hospitals in Britain now also give some patients complete freedom of buildings and grounds and, in some cases, freedom to visit nearby communities. This move is based on the conclusion that disturbed behaviour is often the result of restraint rather than of illness.
Treatment of patients with less severe mental disorders has also changed markedly. Previously, patients with mild depression, anxiety disorders, and other types of neurosis were treated individually with psychotherapy. Although this form of treatment is still widely used, alternative approaches are now available. In some instances, a group of patients meets to work through problems with the assistance of a therapist; in other cases, families are treated as a unit. As in the serious mental illnesses, the treatment of milder forms of anxiety and depression has been furthered by the introduction of new drugs, such as Prozac, that help to alleviate symptoms.
The release of large numbers of patients from state mental hospitals, however, has caused significant problems both for the patients and for the communities that become their new homes. Adequate community services often are unavailable to former mental patients, a large percentage of whom live in nursing homes and other facilities that are not equipped to meet their needs. Most of these patients have been diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and only 15 to 40 per cent of schizophrenics who live in the community achieve an average level of adjustment. Those who do receive care may in some countries visit a clinic at periodic intervals for brief counselling and drug monitoring.
Many different sciences contribute to knowledge about mental health and illness. In recent decades these sciences have begun to clarify basic biological, psychological, and social processes, and they have refined the application of such knowledge to mental health problems.
Some of the most promising leads have come from biological research. For example, brain scientists who study neurotransmitters—chemicals that carry messages from one nerve cell to another—are contributing to knowledge of normal and abnormal brain functioning, and are on the way to discovering better treatment methods for some forms of mental illness. Other researchers are trying to discover how the brain develops—they have learned, for example, that even in adults some nerve cells partially regenerate after being damaged—and such research adds to the understanding of mental retardation, untreatable forms of brain damage, and other conditions.
Psychological research relevant to mental health includes the study of perception, information processing, thinking, language, motivation, emotion, abilities, attitudes, personality, and social behaviour. For example, researchers are studying stress and how to cope with it.
Research in the social sciences focuses on problems of individuals in contexts such as the family, immediate environment, and work setting, as well as the culture at large. One example of such work is epidemiological research, which is the study of the occurrence of disease patterns, including mental illness, in an area or country.



نویسنده : S.Hani M.M ; ساعت ۱٢:٥٤ ‎ق.ظ ; شنبه ٢٦ شهریور ،۱۳۸٤
تگ ها: mental health
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